An Atlas of Speleothem Microfabrics

Copyright 2000 by

L. Bruce Railsback

Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A.

 

Table of Contents

  Introduction to the Atlas  
     
  Glossary accompanying the Atlas  
     
  Part 1: Coarse Spelean Calcite  
  Introduction      
  Palisade calcite (CPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 1-1  
  Palisade calcite (PPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 1-2  
  Transverse view of palisade calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 1-3  
  Columnar calcite (CPL), Carthage, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 1-4  
  Columnar calcite (PPL), Carthage, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 1-5  
  Columnar calcite (CPL), Haylaa Cave, Somalia.   Figure 1-6  
  Columnar calcite (PPL), Haylaa Cave, Somalia.   Figure 1-7  
  SEM image of columnar calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 1-8  
  Interwoven calcite, Macal Chasm, Belize.   Figure 1-9  
  Interwoven calcite (HM), Macal Chasm, Belize.   Figure 1-10  
  SEM image of equant calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 1-11  
         
  Part 2: Aragonite  
  Introduction      
  SEM image of aragonite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 2-1  
  Aragonite (PPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 2-2  
  Aragonite (CPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 2-3  
  Large botryoid of aragonite, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 2-4  
  Very large botryoid of aragonite, Yangzhipo Cave, Guizhou, China.   Figure 2-5  
  Two interfingering fans of aragonite, Bone Cave, Botswana.   Figure 2-6  
         
  Part 3: Spelean Non-carbonate Minerals  
  Chalcedony layer (PPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 3-1  
  Chalcedony layer (CPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 3-2  
  Chalcedony (HM), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 3-3  
  Layers of chalcedony (CPL), Gaalweyte Cave, Somalia.   Figure 3-4  
  Layers of chalcedony (PPL), Gaalweyte Cave, Somalia.   Figure 3-5  
  SEM image of coating of smectite on aragonite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 3-6  
  SEM image of smectite on aragonite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 3-7  
         
  Part 4: Microcrystalline Calcite  
  Microcrystalline calcite, DeSoto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 4-1  
  Structured microcrystalline calcite, Haylaa Cave, Somalia.   Figure 4-2  
  Microcrystalline calcite, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 4-3  
  Microcrystalline calcite, Yangzhipo Cave, Guizhou, China.   Figure 4-4  
  Microcrystalline calcite with detrital grains, unnamed cave, Carthage, Tennessee   Figure 4-5  
  Microcrystalline calcite with detrital quartz, Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa   Figure 4-6  
  Diverse microcrystalline calcite, Guinas Cave, Namibia.   Figure 4-7  
         
  Part 5: Detrital minerals  
  Quartz sand grain, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 5-1  
  Quartz sand grains, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 5-2  
  Grain of clay and Fe oxide, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 5-3  
  Dolomite grains, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 5-4  
  Muscovite grains (CPL), Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 5-5  
  Muscovite grains (PPL), Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 5-6  
         
  Part 6: Biogenic Particles  
  Ostracods, Guinas Cave, Namibia.   Figure 6-1  
  Ostracod, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 6-2  
  Arthropod carapace, Guinas cave, Namibia.   Figure 6-3  
  Bone fragment, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 6-4  
  Plant matter, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 6-5  
  Plant matter, Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa.   Figure 6-6  
  Plant matter (SEM), Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa.   Figure 6-7  
         
  Part 7: Layers  
  Layers of aragonite and calcite, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 7-1  
  Layers of aragonite and calcite (HM), Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 7-2  
  Multiple layers of calcite, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana   Figure 7-3  
  Boundary between calcite layers (HM), Drotsky's Cave, Botswana   Figure 7-4  
  Calcite layers with euhedral to flat crystal terminations, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 7-5  
  Multiple layers of aragonite, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana   Figure 7-6  
  Layers of clear and inclusion-rich aragonite, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-7  
  Layers of clear and inclusion-rich aragonite (HM), Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-8  
  Thin layers of calcite defined by clays, DeSoto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 7-9  
  Layers of clear and inclusion-rich calcite (PPL), Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-10  
  Layers of clear and inclusion-rich calcite (CPL), Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-11  
  Layers of clear and inclusion-rich calcite (HM), Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-12  
  Layers defined by abundance and size of inclusions, Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-13  
  Layers in inclusion-rich calcite (HM), Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar.   Figure 7-14  
  Layers defined by small calcite crystals (PPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 7-15  
  Layers defined by small calcite crystals (CPL), Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 7-16  
  Surface of erosion at which layers are truncated, Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa   Figure 7-17  
         
  Part 8: Diagenetic Fabrics I  
  Relics of aragonite in calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 8-1  
  Relics of aragonite in calcite, DeSoto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 8-2  
  Zoned equant calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 8-3  
  Zoned equant calcite, DeSoto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 8-4  
  Replacive euhedral calcite, Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa.   Figure 8-5  
  Remnants of aragonite in calcite, DeSoto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 8-6  
  Secondary aragonite (PPL), Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 8-7  
  Secondary aragonite (CPL), Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 8-8  
  Zone of secondary aragonite, Drotsky's Cave, Botswana.   Figure 8-9  
  Fracture with fracture-filling calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 8-10  
  Fracture with fracture-filling calcite, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, U.S.A.   Figure 8-11  
  Replacive calcite amidst aragonite, Bone Cave, Botswana.   Figure 8-12  
         
  Part 9: Diagenetic Fabrics II: Diagenetic Columnar Calcite  
  Introduction      
  Microcrystalline and columnar calcite (PPL), Carthage, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 9-1  
  Microcrystalline and columnar calcite (CPL), Carthage, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 9-2  
  Microcrystalline and columnar calcite (PPL), Carthage, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 9-3  
  Microcrystalline and columnar calcite (CPL), Carthage, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 9-4  
  Columnar calcite, Wadi Sannur Caverns, Egypt   Figure 9-5  
  Columnar calcite (HM), Wadi Sannur Caverns, Egypt   Figure 9-6  
  Aragonite and columnar calcite (PPL), De Soto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 9-7  
  Aragonite and columnar calcite (CPL), De Soto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 9-8  
  Corroded aragonite and columnar calcite (HM), De Soto Caverns, Alabama, U.S.A.   Figure 9-9  
  Microcrystalline and columnar calcite (PPL), Cumberland Caverns, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 9-10  
  Microcrystalline and columnar calcite (CPL), Cumberland Caverns, Tennessee, U.S.A.   Figure 9-11  
         
  Appendix A: Other Carbonate Materials  
     
  Appendix B: Sections of Entire Speleothems  
     
  Bibliography  

 

                PPL = plane-polarized light; CPL = cross-polarized light; HM = high magnification.

 


 

This document was generated by Bruce Railsback and is a product of the University of Georgia Laboratory for Speleothem Studies, which is housed in the Department of Geology and Department of Geography of the University of Georgia.