Beach and Shoreline Sands From Around the World

by Elizabeth H. Kennair and Bruce Railsback


Detailed views of carbonate grains

        The plate below shows some grains from our Sample 064 from Miami Beach, Florida. The grains have been mounted in epoxy and ground and polished so thin that light passes through them. Hence these are transmitted-light images, rather than reflected-light images like the lower-magnification views shown in most of the other pages of this website.

        The grains shown, all of which are CaCO3, are
top row, left to right: a corallinacean red alga, a fragment of echinoderm, and a rotalid formanifer;
middle row: a piece of mollusk shell; and (in one image, from uper left to lower right) a green alga (Halimeda), a bivalve mollusk fragment, and a gastropod (snail) shell;
bottom row: a peneroplid foram. a limestone fragment of skeletal packstone, and a limestone fragment of oolitic grainstone.

Sand image

The title page and table of contents for this set of web pages
Sand Pic
e-mail to Railsback (
Railsback's main web page
UGA Geology Department web page