University of Georgia Department of Geology

GEOL 3030 - Elementary Oceanography

Contents:    GEOL 3030 News    GEOL 3030 web pages    GEOL 3030 Exercise material    GEOL 3030 Web-based readings


GEOL 3030 is an introduction to . . .
  • Marine Geology & Plate Tectonics: the geography & geology of the ocean basins,
  • Physical Oceanography: the how and why of ocean currents, waves, & tides,
  • Biological Oceanography: life in the sea & marine ecology,
  • Chemical Oceanography (just a brief introduction)
  • Paleoceanography: the oceans of the past (and perhaps the future).

    GEOL 3030 meets the UGA environmental literacy requirement.  See our GEOL 3030 course description page for a description of the course, its requirements, its scope, its target population, etc..   That page is intended for students interested in taking the course.

    This page provides day-to-day course information as needed and links to websites useful to the course.

    This page was last updated on Wednesday, April 12, 2017, to add news about Exam 2.


    News

    Exam 2 has been graded and will be returned at the end of class on Wednesday, 12 April 2017. A histogram of the grades appears below.

     

    Exam 1 has been graded and will be returned at the end of class on Friday, 17 February 2017. A histogram of the grades appears below.

     

    Exercise 3 has been graded. Of the scores for 32 on-time submissions from 38 enrolled students, the mean was 87.8, the high was 100 (four of them!),, and the low was a 68.

     

    Exercise 1 has been graded. Of the scores for 35 on-time submissions from 38 enrolled students, the mean was 87.8, the high was a 99, and the low was a 71.

    Files with illustrations for the first three lectures are now available on eLCnew. Because of the breakdown of projection equipment on Wednesday 11 January 2017, a file for that lecture includes the outline. However, files on eLCnew will otherwise not include the outlines but only the illustrations.

    Railsback's copy of the 12th edition of Essentials of Oceanography is on reserve at the Science Library Reserves Desk under the call number SPC R152 eo.

     

    Old news:

    Happy New Year!  The 2017 syllabus is now available as a pdf.

    As the syllabus shows, students can use one of three editions of the textbook by Alan Trujillo and Harold Thurman. Railsback has submitted his copy of the 12th edition to the Science Library Reserves Desk.

     

     


    Links to GEOL 3030 web pages:

    Answers to questions recently or frequently asked about GEOL 3030.
    Essay questions for the GEOL 3030 final exam.

    Supplememtary reading about ocean circulation. The first four pages (pp. 47-50) are the main reason for providing this reading for those students wanting a broader and more modern view of ocean circulation. The "WOCE" to which the author refers is the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, a huge data-collection effort in the 1990s that was the subject of the entire book from which the reading is taken.

    The eWOCE Gallery at which you can view many profiles of temperature, salinity, O2, PO4, SiO2, and NO3 through the oceans. These summarize data collected by WOCE, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and are the most up-to-date picture of ocean circulation.

    GEOL 3030 exams from Spring 2016:
    Exam I
    Exam II
    Exam III (the final exam)

    GEOL 3030 course evaluations

     

    GEOL 3030 exercise material:

    An explanation of bathymetric maps for Exercise 1.
    An explanation of bathymetric profiles for Exercise 1.

    The map of seafloor ages for Exercise 2.
    Supplementary instructions about measuring spreading rate for the Plate Tectonics exercise (Exercise 2).
    Help with Part 2 of Exercise 2.

    Everything that you need for Exercise 3 on Ocean Circulation should be in your lecture notes.

    First considerations for getting started on the Tsunami Travel Time exercise (Exercise 4).
    More thoughts on the heart of the Tsunami Travel Time exercise.
    Possible use of a spreadsheet for the Tsunami Travel Time exercise.
    An Excel spreadsheet for people who have never used a spreadsheet. (a download)

    Help finding locations on the map for the Georgia Tides exercise (Exercise 5).
    Suggestions regarding the questions for the Georgia Tides exercise.

    Supplementary instructions about plotting data in the Marine Biology exercise (Exercise 6).
    A suggestion for Question 2 of Part 1 of the Marine Biology exercise.

    Suggestions for the Planet Xornam exercise (Exercise 7).

    Suggestions for the Marine Sediments exercise (Exercise 8).

     

    Web-based Readings (in addition to readings in the textbook indicated on the syllabus)

    Optional readings on minerals and rocks: (These illustrations accompanied the first day's lecture on
    basic geology. That lecture will not be covered on Exam 1.)
    Generalized trends in silicate minerals in igneous rocks
    Rocks, Part I
    The origin of sedimentary rocks
    The origin of siliciclastic and biochemical sedimentary rocks

    Suggested readings on marine geology:

    Plate tectonics and earth dynamics
    Plate tectonic boundaries
    Plate tectonics and sinking of cooled oceanic lithosphere
          (now included in the illustration of boundaries above)
    Subduction and rollback
    Rollback and mantle flow
    Origins of Magmas I
    Mid-ocean ridges
    Mid-ocean ridges and their hydrothermal systems, Part I
    Mid-ocean ridges and their hydrothermal systems, Part 2
    The traditional hot-spot / mantle-plume model
          the last three of which are part of the Dynamic Plate Tectonics website
    Oceanic volcanic features: an Euler diagram
    Aseismic ridges vs. chains of ocean islands and/or seamounts

    Assigned readings on physical oceanography:

    Why density of seawater increases with salinity
    Density of seawater at the sea surface
    Variation of atmospheric pressure between and within climatic belts
    The Trade Winds and Westerlies wind belts
    Gyres of currents
    NASA animations of surface circulation
    The Ekman spiral, dynamic topography, and geostrophic currents
    The Ekman spiral, dynamic topography, and coastal and equatorial upwelling
    Gyres of currents, and eddies
    Some origins of eddies in the (northern hemisphere) oceans
    Cold-core rings and warm-core rings
    Gyres of currents, idealized and eddified
    The thermocline
    Expressions for the deep circulation of the oceans
    Two models of deep ocean circulation
    Models of deep ocean circulation in the 2010s ENSO (El Niño) events
    Shallow-water waves and deep-water waves

    Suggested readings on physical oceanography:

    An animation of the Coriolis Effect.
    Global climate zones: a seven-page work-up
    Global climate zones: one detailed page from the above
    An illustration about the "Caribbean Distillery".
    A table showing the conceptual linkage of atmospheric circulation, ocean circulation, and plate tectonics.
    The interaction of ocean currents, tides, and waves.
    An explanation of the interaction of ocean currents, tides, and waves.
    Animations of the motions of the tides, a website prepared expressly for GEOL 3030.
    The spring-neap monthly tidal cycle.
    A map of the tides of Earth's oceans.
    A modified map of the tides of Earth's oceans.

    Assigned readings on biological oceanography:

    Cycling of nitrogen as a nutrient
    Cycling of phosphorous as a nutrient
    Cycling of silicon as a nutrient
    Cycling of iron as a nutrient
    Iron as a limiting nutrient in the ocean
    Mid-ocean ridges and their hydrothermal systems, Part 2
    Annual ecological cycles - Part 1
    Annual ecological cycles - Part 2

    Suggested readings on biological oceanography:

    Plankton Flashcards, a learning tool regarding marine planktic organisms
    A table on marine mammals
    Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic marine ecosystems:
            the sea surface, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps

    Assigned readings on chemical oceanography:

    The twenty-four most abundant solutes in seawater
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans I: Nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silica)
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans Ia: Nutrients and biological productivity
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans II: Dissolved oxygen (O2)
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans III: Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans IIIa: Carbon dioxide and the carbonate compensation depth (CCD)
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans IV: Oxidation of sinking organic particles - a summary
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans V: Scavenged ions
    Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans VI: The conservative solutes

    A PDF file of the lecture overhead showing how residence times are calculated.
    Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater

    The four-box model of the oceans presented in lecture
    The seven-box model of the oceans presented in lecture

    Assigned readings for the "Three Weird Seas" lecture:

    What's an ocean, and how many does Earth have?
    Size and salinity of lakes, and the ocean(s) I
    Size and salinity of lakes, and the ocean(s) II
    The Black Sea I: Geography
    The Black Sea II: A schematic cross-section
    The Black Sea IIIa: Variation with depth
    The Black Sea IIIb: Chemical variation with depth

    Suggested reading on marine sediments:

    The path from deep-sea sediments to paleoclimate records.

    Assigned readings on paleoceanography:

    a PDF file of a timeline of ocean history - not a reading from which exam questions will be drawn.
    Possible causes of sea-level change
    The path from deep-sea sediments to paleoclimate records
    Oxygen Isotopes - not a reading from which exam questions will be drawn,
            but a reading that will make more sense of the next item.
    Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic global cooling and glaciation
    The Warm Saline Deep Water hypothesis
    a PDF file of three detailed timelines
    a Phanerozoic paleoenvironmental timeline
    A diagram important in our lecture(s) on "Paleoceanography and the Future".

    Suggested readings on paleoceanography:

    Milankovitch cycles I: eccentricity
    Milankovitch cycles II: tilt
    Milankovitch cycles III: precession




    To the GEOL 3030 course description page.
    To Railsback's faculty page.
    To The UGA Geology Department main page.
    email to Bruce Railsback