This modified version of the left side of the new table shows the color of minerals (and non-mineral solids) made by the various ions. Note that minerals of hard cations tend to be clear or white, whereas color in minerals is more commonly associated with intermediate to soft cations. That makes sense, because much of the color in solids results from interaction of light with outer-shell "valence" electrons. Hard cations have had their outer-shell electrons removed, whereas intermediate to soft cations have some remaining outer-shell electrons. Here's another pattern on the new table, but intractable on the conventional table, that I wish I had known when I took mineralogy eons ago.

        As an example . . . .


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The first slide of this presentation
The last slide of this presentation
Railsback's main page about the Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions
e-mail to Bruce Railsback (
Railsback's main web page
UGA Geology Department web page

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