Several elements don't take on a negative charge, but take on multiple positive charges (have multiple cationic forms). For example, molybdenum can be fully oxidized as Mo6+, less oxidized as Mo4+, and even have a reduced form important to microbial ecology as Mo2+. This makes for a more complex table, but one that lets us contextualize behavior of ions much more completely.

        Returning again to thoughts about all previous tables, . . . .  

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The last slide of this presentation
Railsback's main page about the Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions
e-mail to Bruce Railsback (rlsbk@gly.uga.edu)
Railsback's main web page
UGA Geology Department web page
 


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