As Earth Scientists, we usually encounter matter in charged form, rather than elemental uncharged form. We encounter silicon as the Si4+ ion, not elemental uncharged Si0. We find aluminum as the Al3+ ion, not elemental uncharged Al0. We therefore need a table designed to consider charged, rather than just elemental, matter . . . .


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Railsback's main page about the Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions
e-mail to Bruce Railsback (
Railsback's main web page
UGA Geology Department web page

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