This page provides links to diagrams or documents drafted by Dr. Bruce Railsback for basic geology classes at the University of Georgia. Educators are welcome to use these documents in their teaching, so long as the images are not reproduced in publications and are not used for financial gain. Persons wishing to use these documents in publications should contact Email to Railsback (rlsbk@gly.uga.edu).

This is the second of two pages. You can go back to page 1

Mechanical Weathering
Basics of Weathering
Basics of mechanical weathering
Mechanical Weathering Step I
Mechanical Weathering Step II - Exfoliation
Mechanical Weathering Step III - Freeze-thaw and root wedging
Mechanical Weathering IIIa - Freeze-thaw in detail
Mechanical Weathering Step IV - more mechanical weathering
Mechanical Weathering Step V - more mechanical weathering
Mechanical Weathering Step VI - more mechanical weathering
Particle size and surface area

Chemical Weathering
Chemical Weathering - a coffee-maker model
A convenient abridged periodic table
Chemical Weathering - An introduction and two kinds of reactions
Oxidation on the Periodic Table
Images of pyrite and iron oxides - an example of oxidation
Plants, CO2, and carbonic acid
Chemical Weathering - Hydrolysis of Silicates
Chemical Weathering - Hydrolysis of Silicates in different climates
Chemical Weathering - the coffee-maker model in different climates
Chemical weathering on the Periodic Table
Formation of Caliche
Susceptibilty of silicate minerals to chemical weathering
Results of chemical weathering

Soil
A definition of soil
Soil organic components
Soil horizons
Soil processes
Four soil profiles
Differences in soils across climate zones
Soil fertility in different settings
Soil development through time
Soils in Georgia
Elements used in fertilizers
Paleosols - ancient soils

Groundwater
Porosity and permeability
Permeability of various materials
The water table and the zones of saturation and aeration
Where groundwater resides
Vertical cross-section of a typical groundwater system
The same groundwater system after extensive pumping
A topographic map of a hypothetical area
The same map with locations of a few wells and estimates of the elevation of the water table
The same map with one contour of a map of the water table
The same map with a map of the water table
The same map with estimates of depths to which wells would have to be drilled to reach the water table
Chemical composition of Georgia groundwater
Groundwater solutes on the periodic table
pH and Total Dissolved Solids of groundwater in the Georgia Coastal Plain
Troublesome groundwater characteristics
A scenario for groundwater contamination
Another scenario for groundwater contamination
A hypothetical modern landfill
Possible sources of groundwater contaminants

Caves and Karst
Introduction to Karst
Causes of Sinkholes
Formation of Caves
Stalactites and stalagmites
How stalactites and stalagmites form
Fates of Caves

Erosion, Streams, Rivers, and Deltas
Erosion
Differential erosion
Some erosional landforms
Drainage patterns
Base level, and effects of falling base level
Effects of rising base level
Progress of erosion (landscape evolution)
Meandering vs. braided rivers
River meanders
River deposits
River terraces
Meander cut-off and formation of an ox-bow lake
River meanders
River deposits
River terraces
Meander cut-off and formation of an ox-bow lake
Deltas
Progradation of a Delta

Mass Wasting
Definition and examples of mass wasting
Four styles of mass wasting
Pathways of particles in mass wasting
Factors favoring glides, slumps, and flows
Soil creep

Glaciers and Glaciation
Basics of glaciation
Cross-section of an alpine glacier
Ice density vs. depth in glaciers
Features of alpine glaciation
Size and shape of alpine glaciers
Types and rates of glacial movement
Patterns of glacial ice flow
Rock glaciers
Cross-section of continental glaciation
Patterns of glacial ice flow
Erosional features of continental glaciation
Depositional features of continental glaciation I
Depositional features of continental glaciation II
An esker now, and then
Quaternary Glaciation

Geology of the US
A generic cross-section through the Appalachians and Piedmont
A generic cross section through the Coastal Plain
A very simple geologic map of the eastern US, with labels
A very simple geologic map of the western US, with labels
Simplified geology of the Basin and Range
A very simple geologic map of the continental US, without labels

Alpine Geology and Ecology
Mountain-building Processes 1
Mountain-building Processes 2
Mountain-building Processes 3
Mountain-building Processes 4
Mountain-building Processes 5
Mountain-building Processes 6 and 7
Mountain-building Processes 8
Topographic profiles of selected mountains and mountain ranges
An explanation of the erosion and rebound of mountain ranges
A crude map of the area around Innsbruck
A map of geologic regions near Innsbruck
An explanantion of geologic regions near Innsbruck
A highly schematic map of the origin of the Alps
A highly schematic set of cross-sections explaining the origin of the Alps near Innsbruck, Austria: Part I and Part II
Alpine Systems ( a map) and Accompanying cross-sections
Origins of alpine valleys
Alpine environmental conditions
Alpine Climate Effects: Regional
Alpine Climate Effects: Local
Mass balance of glaciers in the Alps
Characteristics of alpine plants
Alpine trees
Evolution of the Schesa Gully, Vorarlberg
Alpine development and resultant downstream flooding
Alpine land use patterns
Observations about alpine animals
Plot of underweight births vs. altitude in the U.S.

Oceanography
Sketch of a mid-ocean ridge
Hydrothermal circulation and a vent community at a mid-ocean ridge
A graphic presentation of the Coriolis Effect
Another graphic presentation of the Coriolis Effect
An animation of the Coriolis Effect
Animations of the motions of the tides.

Earth and Environmental History
An animation of the red shift.
Evidence regarding the age of the Earth
Age of the Earth from Earth's bulk lead isotopes
The standard geological time scale
The standard and two non-standard geological time scales
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
A summary of Life's history and division
A summary of chordate evolution
Hominid cranial sizes through time
Primate brain structure
Maps of hominid dispersal illustrating the "Out of Africa again and again" model
A timeline of Phanerozoic environmental change
The pulse of Pleistocene
A timeline of geologic history
A timeline of human population growth
A timeline of human population growth, with environmental implications
A graph of per-capita energy consumption by various nations

There's also a page of links to diagrams for more advanced courses.


Email to Railsback (rlsbk@gly.uga.edu)
Railsback's main web page
UGA Geology Department web page