Some Fundamentals of Mineralogy and Geochemistry

© L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2501 U.S.A.

        This website makes available some one-page explanations of fundamental ideas in mineralogy and geochemistry.  The individual documents are designed as stand-alone explanations or illustrations, and they can be used as course handouts or as Powerpoint illustrations.

        Virtually all of the individual documents provided here involve graphic presentations or explanations of ideas that are intended to make concepts more accessible to students. The principle driving this work is that things are best understood when seen in their broadest possible context.  The documents are made freely available on the world-wide web, rather than in a paper book produced by a publisher, with the conviction that ideas should move freely through the world, rather than be trapped in the legalisms of ownership and copyright law.

        The pages are available here independently in pdf and jpeg formats.  Users of these illustrations in Powerpoint lectures to students are reminded that some of the illustrations carry a lot of information.  Users can customize their lectures by using Powerpoint's "basic shapes" tools to add filled rectangles that conceal a part or parts of any given illustration.  Removal or reduction of the rectangles can then unveil more of that illustration in successive Powerpoint "slides".

        Educators are welcome to use these documents in their lectures and presentations; a message to Railsback reporting such use would be appreciated.  Permission from Railsback is required for reproduction of any of these documents.

        There is also a page indexing the pages below that are concerned with carbonates.  Every page listed there should also appear below.

        This document was first made public in 2006.  Pages have since been added, and more pages will be added as they are generated.  The most recent additions occurred on 5 November 2014. 

 

Table of Contents:  

   Basics of Geochemistry:
       Abundance and speciation of the elements
       Redox chemistry
       Solutions and aqueous speciation of ions
       Solutions, CO2, HCO3-, CO32- and CaCO3

   The Geochemistry of Minerals:
       Growth and stability of minerals: nano-scale models
       Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth
       Phenomena at mineral surfaces
       Incorporation of trace elements
       The solubility of minerals

   Basics of Mineralogy:
       The meaning of "mineral"
       Crystallinity, coordination, and chemistry
       Systematic mineralogy

   Mineral Groups:
       Silicate minerals
       Bowen's Reaction Series and igneous rocks
       Clay minerals
       Carbonate minerals

   Properties of Minerals:
       Density of minerals
       Hardness of minerals
       Density and hardness of minerals
       Melting temperature and hardness of minerals
       Compressibility of minerals
       Color of minerals

   Topics in Geochemistry:
       Isotopic geochemistry
       Terrestrial carbonates
       Organic geochemistry
       Atmospheric geochemistry
       Geochemistry of some natural waters
       Weathering, soils, and soil development
       Chemistry of seawater / marine chemistry / chemical oceanography
       The Black Sea
       Isotopic records of the Cenozoic
       Environmental issues: DDT, CFCs, Pb, etc.
       Geochemistry of deep-basin brines

       Appendix: Contextual Materials

 


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Basics of Geochemistry

       

Abundance and speciation of the elements

Atoms

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Abundance of the elements

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Binding energy and elemental abundance

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Abundance and form of the most abundant elements in Earth's continental crust

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Cations and anions I: definitions

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Cations and anions I: some geochemical realities

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Cations and anions III: geochemical perspectives on ionic bonding

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Cations and anions IV: the meaning of the superscripts

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Variation in ionic radius between and within elements

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Ionic Potential

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Hardness and softness of ions I: an introduction

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Hardness and softness of ions II: a spectrum across the periodic table

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An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions

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A bit of the Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions as a cross-section of the Earth

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Categorizing cations

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Categorizing anions

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The importance of oxygen

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The special situation of silicon

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Redox chemistry

A brief review of redox chemistry

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A periodic table of redox behavior

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Common redox reactions in the oxidation of organic matter

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Characterization of solutions by pH and Eh - the canonical view

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Characterization of solutions by pH and Eh - a data-based view

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Why oxidation commonly leads to acidification

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Redox, ionic potential, and the behavior of cations

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The geochemical redox conditions of some important elements

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        Also see the section on Organic geochemistry below.        

Solutions and aqueous speciation of ions

Solutions, colloids, and suspensions

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Speciation of cations in aqueous solution I

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Speciation of cations in aqueous solution II

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The power of polydentate ligands

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Aqueous speciation of some hard cations across the periodic table

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Variation in hydrated radius of ions

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Aquoacidity of cations, in context

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Activity and activity coefficients I

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Activity and activity coefficients II: the logic of the Debye-Hückel equation

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Activity and activity coefficients III: Ionic strength

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Activity and activity coefficients IV: brines and γ > 1

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Activity and activity coefficients V: from infinitely dilute solutions to brines

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Activity and activity coefficients VI: Specific ion interaction

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Activity and activity coefficients VII: Specific ion interaction constants

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Silicon in aqueous solution

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Conductivity as a proxy for total dissolved solids

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The typical solutes of geochemical solutions (i.e., of natural waters)

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Solutions, CO2, HCO3-, CO32- and CaCO3

Speciation of inorganic carbon in aqueous solution

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Variation in the dissociation constants of H2CO3 and HCO3- with temperature and salinity

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PCO2 of atmospheres and pH and HCO3 - concentration of solutions

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Carbonate equilibria in solutions exposed to the atmosphere I

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Carbonate equilibria in solutions exposed to the atmosphere II

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The carbon, and carbonate, cycle

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Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part I: a plot

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Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part Ia: an inset

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Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part Ib: an inset

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Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations in natural waters. Part II: observations

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The reaction for equilibrium of CaCO3 with natural waters

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Reactions for the dissolution of CaCO3

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Reactions for the precipitation of CaCO3

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Degassing of CO2 and precipitation of CaCO3

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Adsorption of hydrated Mg2+ on calcite as an inhibitor of calcite growth

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        Also see the page on "Solubility of common carbonate
        minerals" in the section on Carbonate minerals below.
       
 
 

The geochemistry of minerals

       

Growth and stability of minerals: nano-scale models

Surface features on a growing or dissolving crystal: terraces, kinks, and steps

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Particle size and reactivity: It's all about edges and corners, rather than surface area

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An explanation of the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystals

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Thermodynamics of nucleation of a new crystal vs. growth on an existing crystal

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An explanation of the greater solubility of acicular, rather than equant, crystals

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A thermodynamic perspective on Ostwald ripening

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A thermodynamic perspective on Ostwald's Step Law

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An illustrative example of Ostwald's Step Law: silica

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An explanation of transport-limited and surface-reaction-limited crystal growth

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How rate of solute supply can control crystal morphology

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth

Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth I: an introduction

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth II: an example from a sandstone

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth III: an example from a sandy limestone

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth IVa: a stalagmite example

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth IVb: a stalagmite example in detail

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth V: an example in a Holocene limestone

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth VI: an example in a fractured limestone

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Nucleation vs. syntaxial overgrowth VII: an example in a fractured dolostone

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Phenomena at mineral surfaces

Sorption: adsorption and absorption

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption I: some historical scientific context

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption II: the interaction of H2O with mineral surfaces

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption III: variation with pH

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption IV: a diffuse layer in the Gouy-Chapman model

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption V: a compact layer in the Stern model

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption VI: models of specific or "Type II" adsorption

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Surfaces, double layers, and adsorption VII: different surfaces in one crystal

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Adsorption of cations, and adsorption isotherms

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Trends in the adsorption of cations on mineral surfaces

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An explanation of "point of zero charge" - Part I

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An explanation of "point of zero charge" - Part II

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Adsorption of hydrated Mg2+ on calcite as an inhibitor of calcite growth

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Incorporation of trace elements

       

Distribution coefficients and the co-precipitation of trace and minor elements

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An explanation of why distribution coefficients vary with precipitation rate and temperature

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Precipitation of trace elements from an evolving fluid

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The solubility of minerals

       

Solubility of minerals I: solubility products (Ksp values)

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Comparative solubility of minerals I: fluorides, oxides, nitrates, and sulfates

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Comparative solubility of minerals II: Explanations via ionic strength and cation-cation repulsions

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Comparative solubility of minerals III: Explanations via bond strength and cation-cation repulsions

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Comparative solubility of minerals IV: It's not about z/CN bond strength

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Basics of Mineralogy

       

The meaning of "mineral"

The definition of "mineral", Part I: The 1800s (and their influence today)

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The definition of "mineral", Part II: The 1900s

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The definition of "mineral", Part III: The 2000s, and a modern definition

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The diverse meanings of "mineralize"

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Compendia of minerals

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Minerals as the most fundamental level of observation in the Earth Sciences

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Crystallinity, coordination, and chemistry

Crystallinity and mineral stability I

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Crystallinity and mineral stability II

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The ubiquity of crystallinity

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Coordination of anions around cations

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      Two-fold and three-fold coordination

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      Four-fold (tetrahedral) coordination

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      Six-fold (octohedral) coordination

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      Eight-fold (cubic) coordination

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      Twelve-fold coordination

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Coordination and radius ratios

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Variation in C-O and Si-O coordination

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Chemical Bonding

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Mineralogical implications of the hardness and softness of ions

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Repulsion between cations, and mineral stability

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Linkage of polyhedra in minerals

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Systematic Mineralogy

A table of systematic mineralogy I: basic categories

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A table of systematic mineralogy II: redox implications

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A table of systematic mineralogy III: redox pairs

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A table of systematic mineralogy IV: numbers of minerals

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Notes to accompany "A table of systematic mineralogy"

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A table of hybrid minerals

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Radical groups in minerals, and the oxysalts,
sulfosalts, seleniosalts, tellurisalts, and fluosalts

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Patterns in the compositions of minerals I: carbonates and sulfates

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Patterns in the compositions of minerals II: silicates and phosphates

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Patterns in the compositions of minerals III: the oxysalt or "ate" minerals

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Patterns in the compositions of minerals IV: chlorides and oxides

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Patterns in the compositions of minerals V: the "ide" minerals

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Patterns in the compositions of minerals VI: a summary

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Mineral Groups

       

Silicate minerals

Silicon in aqueous solution

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The many forms of silica (SiO2) I: minerals and solutes

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The many forms of silica (SiO2) II: rocks and other aggregates

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Feldspars and feldspathoids I: tetrahedral substitutions

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Feldspars and feldspathoids II: the common feldspars

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Feldspars and feldspathoids III: the feldspars of large cations

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Feldspars and feldspathoids IV: the boron-bearing feldspars

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Feldspars and feldspathoids V: a summary of the feldspars

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Feldspars and feldspathoids VI: feldspar polymorphism and solid soutions

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Feldspars and feldspathoids VII: the feldspathoids

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Feldspars and feldspathoids VIII: the limits of interstitial cations

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Bowen's Reaction Series and Igneous Rocks

Bowen's Reaction Series I: The original document

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Bowen's Reaction Series II: A silicon-centered explanation

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Bowen's Reaction Series III: Melting temperatures of oxides

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Bowen's Reaction Series IV: Toward a broader explanation

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Bowen's Reaction Series V: A summary explanation

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Generalized trends in silicate minerals in igneous rocks

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Rate of cooling of magmas and the texture of igneous rocks

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Origins of melts and magmas I

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Origins of melts and magmas II

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Clay minerals

Clay Mineralogy I: Phyllosilicate Minerals

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Clay Mineralogy II: T-O-T phyllosilicate Minerals

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Clay Mineralogy III: Compositions of T-O-T phyllosilicate minerals

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Why clay (Al-phyllosilicates) is clay (fine-grained minerals)

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X-ray diffraction and the powder method

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Carbonate minerals

Cation sites in the common carbonate minerals

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CaCO3 minerals

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Stability and solubility of carbonate minerals of divalent cations

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Factors favoring precipitation of CaCO3 as calcite or as aragonite

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Adsorption of hydrated Mg2+ on calcite as an inhibitor of calcite growth

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Mg-bearing carbonate minerals

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Solubility of common carbonate minerals

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Occurrence of common carbonate minerals

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X-ray diffraction (XRD) of aragonite and calcite

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The diversity of carbonate minerals

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The many wonders of CaCO3

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        Also see the section on Solutions, CO2, HCO3-, CO32- and CaCO3 above.        
 
 

Properties of Minerals

       

Properties of minerals

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Density of minerals

Density of Minerals I: Inter-radical cations

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Density of Minerals II: Complex anions in oxysalts

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Density of Minerals III: Oxides and stoichiometry

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Density of Minerals IV: Simple anions

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Density of Minerals V: Coordination

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Density of Minerals VI: The effect of structural H2O

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Density of Minerals VII: The effect of OH- in oxysalts

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Density of Minerals VIII: The significance of crystal structure

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Hardness of minerals

Hardness of Minerals I: the Mohs Scale

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Hardness of Minerals II: Variation with structure and bonding

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Hardness of Minerals III: hydrous vs. anhydrous minerals

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Hardness of Minerals IVa: variation with bond length and cation size

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Hardness of Minerals IVb: variation with bond length and anion size

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Hardness of Minerals Va: Variation among oxides and oxysalts

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Hardness of Minerals Vb: Variation among oxides and oxysalts

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Hardness of Minerals VI: Effect of crystal face and direction

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Density and hardness of minerals

Density and hardness I: a first look

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Density and hardness II: a look using normalized density

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Density and hardness III: Knoop hardness and normalized density

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Melting temperature and hardness of minerals

Melting temperature and hardness of minerals

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Compressibilty of minerals

Compressibility of minerals as a function of cation and anion size

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Color of minerals

Color of minerals

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Color in the olivine-group minerals

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Color in carbonate minerals

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Topics in Geochemistry

       

Isotopic geochemistry

Isotopes

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Isotopes - the basics, and why we care

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Relative abundance of stable isotopes: even-odd relationships

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Commonly used stable isotopes

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The delta symbol in stable isotope geochemistry

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Isotope notations: %s, δ values, and ε values

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A simple mass spectrometer

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Isotopic mixing curves

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An explanation of why isotopic fractionation varies with precipitation rate and temperature

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Oxgyen isotope composition of calcite as a function of temperature and water composition

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A graphic explanation of fractionation of oxygen isotopes between water and calcite

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Oxygen isotope fractionation in the precipitation of calcite and aragonite

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The "clumped isotope" paleotemperature method for carbonates

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Rock-water ratios and the stability of δ13C and δ18O values in carbonate materials

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C and O stable isotope compositions of Cenozoic Earth-surface materials of all sorts, Part I

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C and O stable isotope compositions of Cenozoic Earth-surface materials of all sorts, Part II

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The δ13C record of marine limestones

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The δ18O record of marine limestones

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Correlation of charge and δ13C in Earth-surface C-bearing materials

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Parallels in fractionation of isotopes and partitioning of trace elements

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Half-lives and abundances of radioactive isotopes

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Half-lives of radioactive atoms and measurement of age

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Decay systems commonly used in radiometric dating

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Terrestrial carbonates

Earth's naturally occurring carbonate materials

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Degassing of CO2 in caves and precipitation of speleothems

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Controls on the δ13C and δ18O of spelean CaCO3

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C and O stable isotope compositions of speleothems

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Sources of C and O in the CaCO3 of speleothems, or,
    Why δ13C varies more than δ18O in speleothems

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Isotopic evolution of cave waters with degassing of CO2 and evaporation

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C and O stable isotope compositions of pedogenic carbonates

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δ13C and δ18O profiles in pedogenic carbonates

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Pedogenic CaCO3 (caliche) as a record of ancient atmospheric concentration of CO2

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Organic geochemistry

Organic and inorganic compounds

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Organic and inorganic compounds, and biogenic and non-biogenic materials

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Unpaired electrons of atoms and the compositions of simple molecular substances

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Organic structures and functional groups relevant to geochemistry and environmental chemistry

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C-H-O chemistry of some naturally occurring organic substances

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C-H-O chemistry of some naturally occurring redox reactions

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        Also see the section on Redox chemistry above.        

Atmospheric geochemistry

Why the gases of the atmosphere are gases

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere I

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere II: the big two

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere III: the noble gases

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere IV: water vapor

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere V: the major carbon-bearing species

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere VI: anthropogenic inputs

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The multiple forms of oxygen

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere VII: the O-bearing radicals

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere VIII: the role of the OH radical

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The chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere IX: residence times

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Acid Rain I: the big picture

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Acid Rain II: the details

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The Suess Effect

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Geochemistry of some natural waters

The typical solutes of geochemical solutions (i.e., of natural waters)

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Chemistry of some river waters with respect to bedrock lithology

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Variation in groundwater chemistry with host lithology

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Variation in groundwater pH and total dissolved solids with depth

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Change in pH and total dissolved solids of groundwater with depth and time

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Variation in concentration of dissolved silica with depth

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Variation in dissolved O2 with depth in groundwater

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Chemistry of lacustrine waters

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Size and salinity of lakes, and the ocean(s) I

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Size and salinity of lakes, and the ocean(s) II

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Relationships of lakes and the ocean to their drainage basins: a plot of hydrologic dominance I

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Relationships of lakes and the ocean to their drainage basins: a plot of hydrologic dominance II

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Weathering, soils, and soil development

Carbon dioxide in soil

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Typical reactions in the chemical weathering of silicate rocks

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Weathering, alkalinity, and acidity across the periodic table

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Goldich's Weathering Series explained in terms of bond strength

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Mineralogy of soils from the Piedmont and Blue Ridge of the southeastern United States

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Soil development through time I

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Soil development through time II

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The complementary nature of near-surface waters and minerals

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Chemistry of seawater / marine chemistry / chemical oceanography

The twenty-four most abundant solutes in seawater

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Density of seawater at the sea surface

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Why density of seawater increases with salinity

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Marine nutrient cycles I: Nitrogen

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Marine nutrient cycles II: Phosphorous

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Marine nutrient cycles III: Silicon

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Marine nutrient cycles IV: Iron

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Iron as a limiting nutrient in the ocean

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans I: Nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silica)

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans Ia: Nutrients and biological productivity

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans II: Dissolved oxygen (O2)

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans III: Carbon dioxide (CO2)

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans IIIa: Carbon dioxide and the carbonate compensation depth (CCD)

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans IV: Oxidation of sinking organic particles - a summary

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Variation in δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in the oceans

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans V: Scavenged ions

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Variation in concentration of solutes in the oceans VI: The conservative solutes

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Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater I: an oceanographic perspective

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Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater II: a geochemical perspective

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Concentrations and residence times of solutes in seawater III: a combined perspective

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A mid-ocean ridge vent or "black smoker", Part I

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A mid-ocean ridge vent or "black smoker", Part II

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Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic marine ecosystems: the sea surface, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps

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The Warm Saline Deep Water hypothesis

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Box models of the long-term carbon cycle

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Boron in marine calcite as an indicator of ancient PCO2

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The Black Sea

The Black Sea I: Geography

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The Black Sea II: A schematic cross-section

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The Black Sea IIIa: Variation with depth

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The Black Sea IIIb: Chemical variation with depth

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Isotopic records of the Cenozoic

Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic global cooling and glaciation

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The Paleolithic in the context of oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic cooling and glaciation

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The last 150,000 years of human and glacial history

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Terminology and timing of some later Quaternary climatic events

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Holocene ice core isotopic records, climatic events, and human history

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Democracy in the context of human and glacial history

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Environmental issues

DDT, Part I: chemical and ecological aspects

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DDT, Part II: Silent Spring and the banning of agricultural use of DDT

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and related compounds: a gallery

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CFCs and related compounds, and their environmental history

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and related compounds: a tabular summary

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and related compounds: atmospheric concentrations through time

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Simple CFCs in the spectrum from carbon tetrachloride to carbon tetrafluoride

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Toxicology and past use of Pb (lead)

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Greenland ice records of lead transport in the atmosphere

      jpeg

Acid mine drainage I: chemical reactions for oxidation of sulfides

    pdf jpeg

Acid mine drainage II: patterns in acid mine drainage

    pdf jpeg

Geochemistry of deep-basin brines

Deep-basin brines I: Density, TDS, and chloride

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Deep-basin brines II: Variation in major cations

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Deep-basin brines III: Dominance of Ca2+ among cations

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Deep-basin brines IV: Dominance of Cl- among anions

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Deep-basin brines V: Effect of Ca2+'s dominance on pH and SO42- concentration

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Deep-basin brines VI: Comparison with shallower groundwater

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Contextual Materials

       

Basic Geology

Ways of understanding I

    pdf jpeg

Ways of understanding II

    pdf jpeg

The fun mysteries and important practicalities of geology and the geosciences

    pdf jpeg

Rocks, Part I

    pdf jpeg

Rocks, Part II - the rock "cycle"

    pdf jpeg

Rocks, Part III

    pdf jpeg

Origins of melts and magmas I

    pdf jpeg

Origins of melts and magmas II

    pdf jpeg

Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks

    pdf jpeg

The origin of sedimentary rocks

    pdf jpeg

The origin of siliciclastic and biochemical sedimentary rocks

    pdf jpeg

Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks I: Proceses

    pdf jpeg

Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks II: Possible pathways

    pdf jpeg

Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks III: Compaction

    pdf jpeg

Lithification of sediments to sedimentary rocks IV: Cementation

    pdf jpeg

Steno's princples of sedimentary layers

    pdf jpeg

Unconformities and their significance to geologic time

    pdf jpeg

Movement of facies of sediment with rising sea level

      jpeg

Movement of sedimentary facies with change of sea level

    pdf jpeg

Movement of sedimentary facies with change of sea level, and sequences

    pdf jpeg

Three thoughts about fossils

    pdf jpeg

The Bigger Picture

Earth at a glance

    pdf jpeg

Plate tectonics: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries

    pdf jpeg

Mid-ocean ridges

    pdf jpeg

Sources of geological information in the field

    pdf jpeg

Large-scale flow in Earth Systems

    pdf jpeg

The age of the Earth and our solar system

      jpeg

The standard geologic time scale

    pdf jpeg

A Phanerozoic paleoenvironmental timeline

    pdf jpeg

Possible causes of sea-level change

    pdf jpeg

The size of things

    pdf jpeg

Human awareness of space and time
    (a review of how science has changed human awareness of the world, best viewed in .ppt)

 
9-slide
PPT file
12-page
pdf
jpeg

Some guidelines for scientific research

    pdf jpeg

Oceans and Climate

Straits I: width and depth

    pdf jpeg

Straits II: connections of the major ocean basins

    pdf jpeg

Straits III: closure of the largest gulfs, bays, and marginal seas

    pdf jpeg

What is an ocean, and how many does Earth have?

    pdf jpeg

Global climate zones: a seven-page work-up

    pdf  

Global climate zones: one detailed page from the above

    pdf jpeg

Variation of atmospheric pressure between and within climatic belts

    pdf jpeg

The Trade Winds and Westerlies wind belts

    pdf jpeg

The Ekman spiral, dynamic topography, and coastal and equatorial upwelling

    pdf jpeg

The Ekman spiral, dynamic topography, and geostrophic currents

    pdf jpeg

Gyres of currents, and eddies

    pdf jpeg

Some origins of eddies in the (northern hemisphere) oceans

    pdf jpeg

Cold-core rings and warm-core rings

    pdf jpeg

Interactions of currents, tides, and waves

    pdf jpeg

Interactions of currents, tides, and waves II

    pdf jpeg

The Quaternary

Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic global cooling and glaciation

      jpeg

Terminology and timing of some later Quaternary climatic events

      jpeg

From deep-sea sediments to paleoclimate records

    pdf jpeg

Milankovitch cycles I: eccentricity of Earth's orbit, seasonality, and extent of glaciation

    pdf jpeg

Milankovitch cycles II: tilt of Earth's axis, seasonality, and extent of glaciation

    pdf jpeg

Milankovitch cycles III: precession of the seasons, seasonality, and extent of glaciation

    pdf jpeg

Wisonsinan, Illinoian, and earlier glacial deposits of North America

      jpeg

AD, CE, BC, BP, calendar years, radiocarbon years, and all that

    pdf jpeg

Calibration of radiocarbon dates

    pdf jpeg

Calibration of radiocarbon dates II

    pdf jpeg

Radiometric dating via U-series disequilibrium I

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Radiometric dating via U-series disequilibrium II

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Finally, for those who feel the need for one:        

        Title page

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Terms of use: Academic instructors are encouraged to use the material above in their classes, either as in-class illustrations or as handouts. Permission from the author for such use is not required, but notice to the author of such use is appreciated. Permission from the author is required for use in publications, Web-based documents, or other non-classroom use.

 


 


 

e-mail to Bruce Railsback (rlsbk@gly.uga.edu)
Railsback's main web page
UGA Geology Department web page
 

 

 

 


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