A List of Carbonate-Bearing Minerals
Table I: The Pure Carbonate Minerals

L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia
with the kind help of Dr. Joseph A. Mandarino of the Royal Ontario Museum

These tables are intended to list of all known carbonate-bearing minerals for which names have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association's Commission on New Minerals and New Mineral Names. Table I lists the pure carbonate minerals, those in which only HCO3-, CO32-, OH-, or O2- account for all the negative charge. If you spot an error or a missing mineral, or if you have some other comment or query, please contact Bruce Railsback.

Other options:
Introduction to these tables.
Table II: The carbonate-bearing minerals with chloride, sulfate, or fluoride.
Table III: The carbonate-bearing minerals with phosphate, borate, arsenate, or silicate.
Table IV: The carbonate-bearing minerals with multiple other anions.
Table V: Recently recognized carbonate-bearing minerals.

Under each of the following headings, minerals are listed in order of increasing charge on the most highly charged cation.

Pure Carbonate-Bearing Minerals
Mineral Name Chemical Formula Notes (1) ref (2) No. (3)
BICARBONATES
Nahcolite NaHCO3 x x 1.1.1
Kalicinite KHCO3 x x 1.1.2
Teschemacherite NH4HCO3 x x 1.1.3
Wegscheiderite Na5(HCO3)3CO3 x x 1.1.4
Trona Na3HCO3CO3.2H2O x x 1.1.5
Thomasclarkite-(Y)
[97-047]
Na(Y,REE)(HCO3)(OH)3.4H2O 1998 . 1.7.1
. See also Qilianshanite, Mineevite, and Ashburtonite in Tables II and III. . . .
PURE CARBONATES WITH NO OH OR H2O
Natrite Na2CO3 x x 2.1.1
Zabuyelite Li2CO3 x x 2.1.2
Fairchildite K2Ca(CO3)2 x x 2.2.1
Butschliite K2Ca(CO3)2 x x 2.2.2
Nyerereite Na2Ca(CO3)2 x x 2.2.3
Natrofairchildite Na2Ca(CO3)2 x x 2.2.4
Zemkorite Na2Ca(CO3)2 x x 2.2.5
Shortite Na2Ca2(CO3)3 x x 2.2.5
Eitelite Na2Mg(CO3)2 x x 2.2.7
Gregoryite (Na,K,Ca)2CO3 x (7) 2.2.8
Calcite CaCO3 x x 2.3.1
Aragonite CaCO3 x x 2.3.2
Vaterite CaCO3 x x 2.3.3
Alstonite CaBa(CO3)2 x x 2.4.1
Paralstonite CaBa(CO3)2 x x 2.4.2
Barytocalcite CaBa(CO3)2 x x 2.4.3
Ankerite CaFe(CO3)2 x x 2.4.4
Kutnohorite CaMn(CO3)2 x x 2.4.5
Minrecordite CaZn(CO3)2 x x 2.4.6
Benstonite Ca6Ba6Mg(CO3)13 x x 2.4.7
Olekminskite Sr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2 1993 AM78:451 2.4.8
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 x x 2.4.9
Huntite Mg3Ca(CO3)4 x x 2.4.10
Tarnowitzite (CaPb)CO3 x (9) -.-.-
Magnesite MgCO3 x x 2.5.1
Norsethite BaMg(CO3)2 x x 2.5.2
Gaspeite (Ni, Mg)CO3 x x 2.5.3
Breunnerite (Mg,Fe)CO3 x (10) -.-.-
Sideroplesite (Fe,Mg)CO3 x (10) -.-.-
Pistomesite (Fe,Mg)CO3 x (10) -.-.-
Magniosiderite (Fe,Mg)CO3 x (10) -.-.-
Smithsonite ZnCO3 x x 2.6.1
Siderite FeCO3 x x 2.6.2
Rhodochrosite MnCO3 x x 2.6.3
Sphaerocobaltite CoCO3 x x 2.6.4
Otavite CdCO3 x x 2.6.5
Strontianite SrCO3 x x 2.6.6
Cerussite PbCO3 x x 2.6.7
Witherite BaCO3 x x 2.6.8
Oligonite (Fe,Mn)CO3 x (11) -.-.-
Remondite-(Ce) Na3(Ce,La,Ca,Na,Sr)3(CO3)5 x x 2.7.1
Burbankite (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5 x x 2.7.2
Calcioburbankite Na3(Ca,REE,Sr)3(CO3)5 1996 AM81:1013 2.7.3
Khanneshite (Na,Ca)3(Ba,Sr,Ce,Ca)3(CO3)5 x x 2.7.4
Carbocernaite (Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2 x x 2.7.5
Ewaldite Ba(Ca,Y,Na,K)(CO3)2 x x 2.7.6
Sahamalite-(Ce) (Mg,Fe2+)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4 x x 2.7.7
Petersenite-(Ce) Na4REE2(CO3)5 1995 AM80:406 2.7.8
PURE CARBONATES WITH H2O
Natron Na2CO3.10H2O x x 3.1.1
Thermonatrite Na2CO3.H2O x x 3.1.2
Gaylussite Na2Ca(CO3)2.5H2O x x 3.2.1
Pirssonite Na2Ca(CO3)2.2H2O x x 3.2.2
Baylissite K2Mg(CO3)2.4H2O x x 3.2.3
Chalconatronite Na2Cu(CO3)2.3H2O x x 3.2.4
Ikaite CaCO3.6H2O x x 3.3.1
Monohydrocalcite CaCO3.H2O x x 3.3.2
Sergeevite Ca2Mg11(CO3)13.10H2O x x 3.4.1
Nesquehonite MgCO3.3H2O x x 3.5.1
Barringtonite MgCO3.2H2O x x 3.5.2
Lansfordite MgCO3.5H2O x x 3.5.3
Hellyerite NiCO3.6H2O x x 3.6.1
Lanthanite-(La) (La,Ce)2(CO3)3.8H2O x x 3.7.1
Lanthanite-(Ce) (Ce,La)2(CO3)3.8H2O x x 3.7.2
Lanthanite-(Nd) (Nd,La)2(CO3)3.8H2O x x 3.7.3
Coutinite
Coutinhite
Neodymite
Discredited in favor of Lanthanite-(Y) and/or Lanthanite-(Nd) . MM63:761 .
Calkinsite-(Ce) (Ce,La)2(CO3)3.4H2O x x 3.7.4
Kimuraite-(Y) CaY2(CO3)4.6H2O x x 3.7.5
Lokkaite-(Y) CaY4(CO3)7.9H2O x x 3.7.6
Donnayite-(Y) Sr3NaCaY(CO3)6.3H2O x x 3.7.7
Shomiokite-(Y) Na3Y(CO3)3.3H2O 1994 AM79:766 3.7.8
Tengerite-(Y) Y2(CO3)3.2-3H2O (new formula) x (12) 3.7.9
Tuliokite Na6BaTh(CO3)6.6H2O x x 3.10.1
Weloganite Sr3Na2Zr(CO3)6.3H2O x x 3.10.2
PURE CARBONATES WITH OH- OR O2-
McGuinnessite (Mg,Cu)2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.5.1
Hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 x x 4.6.1
Malachite Cu2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.6.2
Azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 x x 4.6.3
Rosasite (Cu,Zn)2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.6.4
Zincrosasite (Zn,Cu)2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.6.5
Aurichalcite (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6 x x 4.6.6
Loseyite (Zn,Mn)7(CO3)2(OH)10 x x 4.6.7
Sclarite (Zn,Mg,Mn)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10 x x 4.6.8
Hydrocerussite Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 x x 4.6.9
Kolwezite (Cu,Co)2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.6.10
Nullaginite Ni2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.6.11
Glaukosphaerite (Cu,Ni)2CO3(OH)2 x x 4.6.12
Shannonite Pb2OCO3 1996 AM81:252 4.6.13
Georgeite Cu2CO3(OH)2 (new formula) x (13) 4.6.14
Plumbonacrite Pb10(CO3)6O(OH)6 x (5) -.-.-
Dawsonite NaAlCO3(OH)2 x x 4.8.1
Bismutite (BiO)2CO3 x x 4.9.1
Beyerite (Ca,Pb)(BiO)2(CO3)2 x x 4.9.2
Sabinaite Na4Zr2TiO4(CO3)4 x x 4.10.1
Kimrobinsonite (Ta,Nb)(OH)3(O,CO3) x x 4.10.2
Rutherfordine UO2CO3 x x 4.11.1
Widenmannite Pb2UO2(CO3)3 x x 4.11.2
PURE CARBONATES
With H2O AND OH- or O2-
Peterbaylissite Hg1+3CO3(OH).2H2O 1995 AM80:1074 5.1.1
Kambaldaite NaNi4(CO3)3(OH)3.3H2O x x 5.2.1
Szymanskiite Hg+116(Ni,Mg)6(CO3)12(OH)12(H3O)8.3H2O x error in HMI 5.2.2
Pokrovskite Mg2CO3(OH)2.0.5H2O x x 5.5.1
Artinite Mg2CO3(OH)2.3H2O x x 5.5.2
Hydromagnesite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.4H2O x x 5.5.3
Giorgiosite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.4H2O x x 5.5.4
Dypingite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.5H2O x x 5.5.5
Callaghanite Cu2Mg2CO3(OH)6.2H2O x x 5.5.6
Widgiemoolthalite (Ni,Mg)5(CO3)4(OH)2.4-5(H2O) 1993 A.M.78:819 5.5.7
Yoshikawaite Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.8H2O x (4) -.-.-
Zaratite Ni3CO3(OH)4.4H2O x x 5.6.1
Otwayite Ni2CO3(OH)2.H2O x x 5.6.2
Georgeite Cu5(CO3)3(OH)4.6H2O (old formula) x (13) 5.6.3
Claraite (Cu,Zn)3CO3(OH)4.4H2O x x 5.6.4
Tengerite-(Y) CaY3(CO3)4(OH)3.3H2O (old formula) x (12) 5.7.1
Calcio-ancylite-(Nd) (Nd,Ce)3Ca(CO3)4(OH)3.H2O x x 5.7.2
Calcio-ancylite-(Ce) (Ca,Sr)Ce(CO3)2(OH).H2O x x 5.7.3
Ancylite-(Ce) SrCe(CO3)2OH.H2O x x 5.7.4
Gysinite-(Nd) Pb(Nd,La)(CO3)2(OH).H2O x x 5.7.5
Schuilingite-(Nd) PbCu(Nd,Gd,Sm,Y)(CO3)3OH.1.5H2O x x 5.7.6
Kamphaugite-(Y) Ca(Y,REE)2(CO3)4(OH)2.3H2O 1994 AM79:387 5.7.7
Ancylite-(La) Sr(La,Ce)(CO3)2(OH).H2O 1998 x 5.7.8
Dundasite PbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4.H2O x x 5.8.1
Indigirite Mg2Al2(CO3)4(OH)2.15H2O x x 5.8.2
Alumohydrocalcite CaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4.3H2O x x 5.8.3
Para-alumohydrocalcite CaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4.6H2O x x 5.8.4
Dresserite BaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4.H2O x x 5.8.5
Hydrodresserite BaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4.3H2O x x 5.8.6
Strontiodresserite (Sr,Ca)Al2(CO3)2(OH)4.H2O x x 5.8.7
Znucalite Zn11UO2Ca(CO3)3(OH)204H2O
Zn12UO2Ca(CO3)3(OH)224H2O
x x 5.11.1
Bijvoetite-(Y) (Y,Dy)2(UO2)4(CO3)4(OH)6.11H2O x x 5.11.2
Astrocyanite-(Ce) Cu2(Ce,Nd)2UO2(CO3)5(OH)2.1.5H2O x x 5.11.3
Shabaite-(Nd) Ca(Nd,Sm,Y)2UO2(CO3)4(OH)2.6H2O x x 5.11.4
Rabittite Ca3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4.18H2O x x 5.11.5
Sharpite Ca(UO2)6(CO3)5(OH)4.6H2O x x 5.11.6
Urancalcarite Ca(UO2)3CO3(OH)6.3H2O x x 5.11.7
Wyartite Ca3(UO2)6U4+(CO3)2(OH)18.3-5H2O x x 5.11.8
Joliotite UO2CO3.nH2O x x 5.11.9
Grimselite K3NaUO2(CO3)3.H2O x error in HMI 5.11.10
Bayleyite Mg2UO2(CO3)3.8H2O x x 5.11.11
Metazellerite CaUO2(CO3)2.3H2O x x 5.11.12
Zellerite CaUO2(CO3)2.5H2O x x 5.11.13
Voglite Ca2CuUO2(CO3)4.6H2O x x 5.11.14
Andersonite Na2CaUO2(CO3)3.6H2O x x 5.11.15
Swartzite CaMgUO2(CO3)3.12H2O x x 5.11.16
Kamotoite-(Y) Y2(UO2)4O4(CO3)3.14.5(H2O) x x 5.11.17
Mckelveyite-(Y) Ba3Na(Ca0.7,U0.2)Y(CO3)6.3(H2O) x x 5.11.18
Fontanite Ca(UO2)3(CO3)4.3H2O x x 5.11.19
Liebigite Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3.11H2O x dissed in HMI 5.11.20
Roubaultite Cu2(UO2)3(CO3)2O2(OH)2.4H2O x error in HMI 5.11.21
Blatonite
[IMA 97-025]
UO2CO3H20 1998 CM36:1077 (5.11.22)
Layered Hydroxyl-Carbonate Minerals
Hydrotalcite Mg6Al2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x x 6.8.1
Scarbroite Al5CO3(OH)13.5H2O x x 6.8.2
Hydroscarbroite Al14(CO3)3(OH)36.nH2O x x 6.8.3
Manasseite Mg6Al2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x x 6.8.4
Takovite Ni6Al2(OH)16(CO3,OH).4H2O x x 6.8.5
Charmarite Mn4Al2(OH)12CO3.3H2O x x 6.8.6
Quintinite Mg4Al2(OH)12CO3.3H2O x x 6.8.7
Caresite Fe4Al2(OH)12CO3.3H2O x x 6.8.8
Wermlandite Ca2Mg14(Fe3+,Al)4CO3(OH)42.29H2O (old) x (8) -.-.-
Pyroaurite Mg6Fe3+2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x x 6.9.1
Sjogrenite Mg6Fe3+2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x x 6.9.2
Brugnatellite Mg6Fe3+CO3(OH)13.4H2O x x 6.9.3
Coalingite Mg10Fe3+2CO3(OH)24.2H2O x x 6.9.4
Stichtite Mg6Cr3+2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x x 6.9.5
Desautelsite Mg6Mn3+2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x x 6.9.6
Reevesite Ni6Fe3+2CO3(OH)16.4H2(14) x x 6.9.7
Comblainite Ni6Co3+2(OH)16(CO3).nH2O x x 6.9.8
Barbertonite Mg6Cr3+2CO3(OH)16.4H2O x (6) 6.9.9

Footnotes:

1 Notes for Railsback's use.

2 For minerals that post-date Clark's (1993) Hey's Mineral Index, volume and page on which they are reported in American Mineralogist (or other publication as noted).

3 Column number.row number.mineral number in Figure 1 of Railsback's 1999 paper on "Patterns in the compositions, properties, and geochemistry of carbonate minerals" (Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 14, p. 1-20).

4 The status of yoshikawaite is uncertain; its name has never been submitted to the IMA's CNMMN. It may be identical to other hydrated Mg carbonates, and it is not treated as a separate mineral here.

5 Until recently, plumbonacrite had not been found in nature. However, a natural occurrence in association with elyite (Pb4Cu(SO4)(OH)8) was reported in 1997 in Miyawaki, R., Matsubara, S. and Hashimoto, E. (1997): Elyite from the Mizuhiki Mine, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan: Bull. of the National Science Museum, Series C: Geology and Paleontology, v. 23, p. 27-33. Many thanks to Dr. Uwe Kolitsch of the University of Vienna for pointing out to me this new occurrence. Plumbonacrite and other PbO-carbonates are the subject of a series of three papers in Mineralogical Magazine v. 64, p. 1063-1087 (2000).

6 Clark (1993) cites unpublished evidence that barbertonite is identical with stichtite, but it is treated as a bona fide mineral here.

7 Gregoryite was recognized by the IMA's CNMMN around 1980. As of 1996, a full description had not been published (see AM 81:517), but it is retained as a mineral here.

8 Wermlandite has now been identified as a purely sulfate/hydroxyl (non-carbonate) mineral by Rius and Allman (Zeitschrift fuer Kristallographie, v. 168, p. 133-144, 1984).

9 Tarnowitzite is generally regarded as an unnecessary name for Pb-rich aragonite (see AM 65:1069), and in some cases it has been shown to be a mixture of aragonite and cerussite, so it is not included as a mineral here.

10. Breunnerite is generally regarded as an unnecessary name for Fe-rich magnesite, and sideroplesite, pistomesite, and magniosiderite are generally regarded as unnecessary names for Mg-rich siderite. None of them are included as minerals here.

11. Oligonite is generally regarded as an unnecessary name for Mn-rich siderite, so it is not included as a mineral here.

12. Tengerite-(Y) was redefined with IMACNMMN approval as Y2(CO3)3.2-3H2O by Miyakaki et al. (1993, American Mineralogist, v. 78, p. 425-432). The old formula was CaY3(CO3)4(OH)3.3H2O.

13. Georgeite was redefined with IMACNMMN approval as Cu2CO3(OH)2 by Pollard et al. (1991, Mineralogical Magazine , v. 55, p. 163-166). The old formula was Cu5(CO3)3(OH)4.6H2O.

14. Song and Moon (1998, Clay Minerals, v. 33, p. 285-296; abstracted in American Mineralogist 84:687) reported a Co-analogue of reevesite.


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